Even those who have never read the Rime have come under its influence: its words have given the English language the metaphor of an albatross around one's neck, the quotation of "water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink" almost always rendered as "but not a drop to drink" , and the phrase "a sadder and a wiser man" again, usually rendered as "a sadder but wiser man". Both Kubla Khan and Christabel have an additional " Romantic " aura because they were never finished. Stopford Brooke characterised both poems as having no rival due to their "exquisite metrical movement" and "imaginative phrasing.
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The eight of Coleridge's poems listed above are now often discussed as a group entitled "Conversation poems". The term itself was coined in by George McLean Harper, who borrowed the subtitle of The Nightingale: A Conversation Poem to describe the seven other poems as well. Harper himself considered that the eight poems represented a form of blank verse that is " Coleridge's The Eolian Harp and The Nightingale maintain a middle register of speech, employing an idiomatic language that is capable of being construed as un-symbolic and un-musical: language that lets itself be taken as 'merely talk' rather than rapturous 'song'.
The last ten lines of Frost at Midnight were chosen by Harper as the "best example of the peculiar kind of blank verse Coleridge had evolved, as natural-seeming as prose, but as exquisitely artistic as the most complicated sonnet. Therefore all seasons shall be sweet to thee, Whether the summer clothe the general earth With greenness, or the redbreast sit and sing Betwixt the tufts of snow on the bare branch Of mossy apple-tree, while the nigh thatch Smokes in the sun-thaw; whether the eave-drops fall Heard only in the trances of the blast, Or if the secret ministry of frost Shall hang them up in silent icicles, Quietly shining to the quiet Moon.
In , M. Abrams wrote a broad description that applies to the Conversation poems: "The speaker begins with a description of the landscape; an aspect or change of aspect in the landscape evokes a varied by integral process of memory, thought, anticipation, and feeling which remains closely intervolved with the outer scene. In the course of this meditation the lyric speaker achieves an insight, faces up to a tragic loss, comes to a moral decision, or resolves an emotional problem. Often the poem rounds itself to end where it began, at the outer scene, but with an altered mood and deepened understanding which is the result of the intervening meditation.
Abrams' essay has been called a "touchstone of literary criticism". In addition to his poetry, Coleridge also wrote influential pieces of literary criticism including Biographia Literaria , a collection of his thoughts and opinions on literature which he published in The work delivered both biographical explanations of the author's life as well as his impressions on literature. The collection also contained an analysis of a broad range of philosophical principles of literature ranging from Aristotle to Immanuel Kant and Schelling and applied them to the poetry of peers such as William Wordsworth.
Eliot stated that he believed that Coleridge was "perhaps the greatest of English critics, and in a sense the last. However, Eliot also criticises Coleridge for allowing his emotion to play a role in the metaphysical process, believing that critics should not have emotions that are not provoked by the work being studied. To Kenner, Coleridge's attempt to discuss complex philosophical concepts without describing the rational process behind them displays a lack of critical thinking that makes the volume more of a biography than a work of criticism. In Biographia Literaria and his poetry, symbols are not merely "objective correlatives" to Coleridge, but instruments for making the universe and personal experience intelligible and spiritually covalent.
To Coleridge, the "cinque spotted spider," making its way upstream "by fits and starts," [Biographia Literaria] is not merely a comment on the intermittent nature of creativity, imagination, or spiritual progress, but the journey and destination of his life. The spider's five legs represent the central problem that Coleridge lived to resolve, the conflict between Aristotelian logic and Christian philosophy. Two legs of the spider represent the "me-not me" of thesis and antithesis, the idea that a thing cannot be itself and its opposite simultaneously, the basis of the clockwork Newtonian world view that Coleridge rejected.
The remaining three legs—exothesis, mesothesis and synthesis or the Holy trinity—represent the idea that things can diverge without being contradictory. Taken together, the five legs—with synthesis in the center, form the Holy Cross of Ramist logic. The cinque-spotted spider is Coleridge's emblem of holism, the quest and substance of Coleridge's thought and spiritual life. He comments in his reviews: "Situations of torment, and images of naked horror, are easily conceived; and a writer in whose works they abound, deserves our gratitude almost equally with him who should drag us by way of sport through a military hospital, or force us to sit at the dissecting-table of a natural philosopher.
To trace the nice boundaries, beyond which terror and sympathy are deserted by the pleasurable emotions, — to reach those limits, yet never to pass them, hic labor, hic opus est. Most powerful stimulants, they can never be required except by the torpor of an unawakened, or the languor of an exhausted, appetite We trust, however, that satiety will banish what good sense should have prevented; and that, wearied with fiends, incomprehensible characters, with shrieks, murders, and subterraneous dungeons, the public will learn, by the multitude of the manufacturers, with how little expense of thought or imagination this species of composition is manufactured.
However, Coleridge used these elements in poems such as The Rime of the Ancient Mariner , Christabel and Kubla Khan published in , but known in manuscript form before then and certainly influenced other poets and writers of the time. Poems like these both drew inspiration from and helped to inflame the craze for Gothic romance. Coleridge also made considerable use of Gothic elements in his commercially successful play Remorse. Mary Shelley , who knew Coleridge well, mentions The Rime of the Ancient Mariner twice directly in Frankenstein , and some of the descriptions in the novel echo it indirectly.
Although William Godwin , her father, disagreed with Coleridge on some important issues, he respected his opinions and Coleridge often visited the Godwins. Mary Shelley later recalled hiding behind the sofa and hearing his voice chanting The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. Lewis also makes mention of his name in The Screwtape Letters as a poor example of prayer, in which the devils should encourage.
Although his father was an Anglican vicar, Coleridge worked as a Unitarian preacher between and He eventually returned to the Church of England in Despite being mostly remembered today for his poetry and literary criticism, Coleridge was also perhaps in his own eyes primarily a theologian. His writings include discussions of the status of scripture, the doctrines of the Fall , justification and sanctification, and the personality and infinity of God.
A key figure in the Anglican theology of his day, his writings are still regularly referred to by contemporary Anglican theologians.
Literary Remains, Volume 2 by Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 1772-1834
Maurice , F. Hort , F. Robertson , B. Coleridge was also a profound political thinker. While he began his life as a political radical, and an enthusiast for the French Revolution; over the years Coleridge developed a more conservative view of society, somewhat in the manner of Burke. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Coleridge disambiguation. This article is about the early 19th-century English poet. For the late 19th-century British composer, see Samuel Coleridge-Taylor. Main article: Early life of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
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Biographia Literaria. Princeton UP, , p. A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. St Mary Redcliffe. Archived from the original on 3 July Retrieved 17 January Unitarian Chapel, Mary Street, Taunton. Obtained 21 October Calvert-Toulmin, Bruce. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 21 October Retrieved 4 November An Illustrated Literary Guide to Shropshire.
Shropshire Libraries. Coleridge and Cosmopolitan Intellectualism — London: Routledge. London: Windmill Books. Open Books Publishers. Wiltshire Council. Retrieved 12 September Retrieved 11 August Retrieved 12 April London p. Retrieved 29 January Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
Eminent Characters. Conversation poems. Late poetry and Lyrical Ballads. Biographia Literaria The Watchman Notebooks. Abovian Alencar Alfieri Andersen A. Arnim B. Shelley P. Schlegel F. Eminent English Writers. Sura Books. In Stephen, Leslie ed. Dictionary of National Biography. Anglican History. Retrieved 2 January Sara Coleridge: Her Life and Thought. Palgrave Macmillan. Poems by Coleridge, Hartley, University of Texas. Family tree of the Coleridge family. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote Wikisource.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Wikiquote has quotations related to: Samuel Taylor Coleridge. Wikisource has original works written by or about: Samuel Taylor Coleridge. John Coleridge [i] — Ann Bowden [i] — Luke Herman Coleridge [ii] — Sarah Hart [ii] c. Frances Duke Taylor [iii] — James Coleridge [iii] — Samuel Taylor Coleridge [iv] — Sara Fricker [iv] — William Hart Coleridge [ii] — Harriet Norris — Francis George Coleridge — Henry Nelson Coleridge [iv] — Sara Coleridge [iv] — Hartley Coleridge [v] — Derwent Coleridge [vi] — Sir John Taylor Coleridge — Mary Buchanan — Edward Coleridge [iii] — Mary Keate [iii] — Henry James Coleridge — Alethea Coleridge — John Mackarness — Charles Edward Coleridge — Herbert Coleridge — Ernest Hartley Coleridge [vi] — Wedgwood had been confirmed to him by will in , and this he allowed to his wife, but in the remaining half was stopped.
He delivered a second course of lectures in London, and in his drama, Remorse , was acted at Drury Lane with success. Leaving his family dependent upon Southey, he lived with various friends, first, from to , with John Morgan at Calne. While there he published Christabel and Kubla Khan in , and in Biographia Literaria , Sybilline Leaves , and an autobiography. In he appeared for the last time as a lecturer.
He found in a final resting-place in the household of James Gillman, a surgeon, at Highgate. His life thenceforth was a splendid wreck. His nervous system was shattered, and he was a constant sufferer.
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Yet these last years were, in some respects, his best. He maintained a struggle against opium which lasted with his life, and though he ceased to write much, he became the revered centre of a group of disciples, including such men as Sterling, Maurice, and Hare, and thus indirectly continued and increased his influence in the philosophic and theological thought of his time. He returned to Trinitarianism, and a singular and childlike humility became one of his most marked characteristics.
In he was elected an Associate of the Royal Society of Literature, which brought him a pension of guineas. Endowed with an intellect of the first order, and an imagination at once delicate and splendid, Coleridge, from a weakness of moral constitution, and the lamentable habit already referred to, fell far short of the performance which he had planned, and which included various epic poems, and a complete system of philosophy, in which all knowledge was to be co-ordinated. He has, however, left enough poetry of such excellence as to place him in the first rank of English poets, and enough philosophic, critical, and theological matter to constitute him one of the principal intellectually formative forces of his time.
His knowledge of philosophy, science, theology, and literature was alike wide and deep, and his powers of conversation, or rather monologue, were almost unique. Cousin, ]. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, — Biographical note Poet, philosopher, and critic, son of the Rev. Ellis, and printed by.