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It would be a mistake — a very big one — if this were to happen. And wether the Iraqi military prefers its timetable victory over the IS by the end of march to a move forward coordinated under the necessary humanitarian logics remains still to be seen. Afghanistan meanwhile is home to as many refugees and internally displaced people like never before in the past years.

From Pakistan, more than , people have crossed the border, mostly forced to. Others have followed calls from the government in Kabul that seem to have a political background. Also, several hundred thousands returnees have been coming in from Iran. To this comes an even higher number of internally displaced people, escaping fighting in a considerable number of provinces. To this come gang-orchestrated violence, abductions and a reality of general impunity. In the face of these facts, the few hundred Afghans forcibly returned from Germany or out of free will, are a small number.

But their deportations, for good reasons, continue to makes the headlines. The German government is trying to implement its recent agreement with Kabul, not more than a declaration of intent. There analysis is based on sources from the United Nations in Afghanistan. Accordingly to its mission, a forced return is not responsible. If the agreement would prevail, it might be because two unequal protagonists are sitting at the table, with Kabul being pressured in the face of foreign aid it remains dependent on.

On the other hand, let us not be mistaken about how fragile Afghanistan has become in recent years, always said to be close to the abyss. Why is it that so? What is our share in this? Why have so many expensive programs on good governance been so ineffective in outcome? An open debate on this would bring us closer to an honest assessment of aid policies on the international intervention in Afghanistan the final goal of which still remains unclear.

In carrying out this assessment, we would be likely to approach a fairer deal also with regard to the refugees and migrants who have come to Europe. Sie werden bevorzugt. Das hat Folgen bei der Wohnungssuche und der Gesundheitsversorgung, bei sozialer und psycho-sozialer Betreuung. Aktuell mag der Krieg am Hindukusch weniger sichtbar sein, weniger intensiv.

Und auch das meint die Aussage. In the following chapter, I will describe the role of film translations in Germany from a technical and a historical perspective. Meyer [co-owner of Metro-Goldwyn-Meyer, one of the biggest film companies in the USA] declared he was not worried; he assumed that the popularity of American films would lead to the use of English as a universal language. Thompson Film is a mass medium and translated films are the only kind of translations which are received by a mass audience.

A film text has an unparalleled number of recipients because film has at the moment five channels of distribution: cinema, television, video, DVD and internet. Furthermore, in the case of cinema releases and television broadcasts, a large audience receives a particular film practically at the same time. That is to say, the content of a film can easily enter public discourse because it is likely that a large number of people share the information. The translation of films has long been the prerequisite for the large-scale international distribution of films as commodities.

This chapter describes the different types of translation in film and traces the main steps in the history of film export from the USA to Germany, including the special role which has been ascribed to American motion pictures in the context of 20th century German history. It concludes with the introduction of the concept of the "multimodality" of film texts, which is at once their defining characteristic and the central problem for their translation.

It will be postulated that it is this multimodality which has to be the point of departure for — at least — any linguistic analysis of film texts. A note on terminology: In the context of this study, the expression 'English language films' refers to film productions of the American — 'Hollywood' — film industry. Products of the American film industry can also include nominally for example by country of production, topic or cast 'British' motion pictures.

Of course, a genuine British film industry has always existed, and there have been exports from the UK to the German market as well as from Hollywood to Germany. However, especially after , the American and British film businesses have closely linked up with respect to co-productions and American financing of British film productions cf. Guback No meaningful distinction relevant to the topic and scope of this investigation can reasonably be made between the two of them. Thus, for the purposes of the present study 'English language films' include American and British productions, and 'American' films, i.

Exceptions to this will be made explicit. The necessity to translate films from English into other languages was the consequence of the introduction of the sound film — 'talking picture' — around the year and the industry's fear to lose all but the English speaking markets. Contrary to the hopes of the American film industry — as expressed by Louis B. At the end of the year , contemporary observers noted that non-English speaking audiences displayed "signs of restlessness, when long periods of English dialogue occur[red]" quoted in Segrave In the same year, an American film producer described the general trend in the receiving cultures as a quick development from initial appraisal of the new technology towards open opposition against the concurrent arrival of a foreign language: While it is true that right now many of these countries are tolerating pictures with English dialogue, this is due to the scarcity of suitable sound pictures in their native language […].

The novelty is rapidly wearing off, however, and already in many countries the agitation is growing keener against the invasion of the English language. In essence, the ones that were developed between the late s and the early s are those that are still most widely used today. In technical terms, the translation of films is called language transfer. At present, two main methods of language transfer are in use: subtitling and revoicing. Revoicing methods comprise: commentary, narration, voice-over, and lip-sync dubbing hereafter called dubbing. For popular fictional feature films — the type investigated here — the usual choices are subtitling and dubbing.

Note that the preservation of semantic or pragmatic meaning is not explicitly mentioned. The goal of dubbing and subtitling is to carry out a fine balancing act between the creation of a new set of messages which are easily comprehensible to the viewer and with which he is comfortable, and, conversely, the prevention of the same set of messages from distracting and therefore misleading the viewer whether aurally, visually or in terms of content or linguistic style.

Luyken 39 I will summarize the technical definitions of both subtitling and dubbing given in Luyken in turn, and then focus on the differences between subtitling and dubbing relevant for the investigation of language variation in film translations and the notion of language change through film translations. Subtitles are mostly condensed translations of original dialogue or onscreen text which appear as lines of text usually positioned towards the foot of the screen.

The subtitles appear and disappear in time with the corresponding portion of original dialogue or onscreen text. Subtitles can be reduced, containing only key phrases of the original dialogue or text. They differ from dubbing in their abandonment of the constraints of lip synchrony. The new voice-track is then mixed with the original music and the sound effects track. The aim is to create the illusion that the onscreen characters are speaking in the target language, i. The visual appearance of the film remains unaltered from the original, but it is usually edited so as to accommodate optimum lip synchronization.

The present investigation of film translations deals exclusively with dubbing. In contrast to subtitling, only translation by dubbing appears to have the potential to trigger language change in the target language. The reasons for this are the following: Firstly, only dubbing aims at creating the illusion that the film characters are actually speaking the native language of the audience. This seems to be a prerequisite for the possible subsequent appropriation and imitation of the styles of speaking by the members of the audience themselves cf. Chapter 6 for an explanation of the mode of cinematic reception.

Moreover, the illusion of the dialogue's originality may lend linguistic authenticity to the utterances, which may in turn support the process of adaptation by the individual viewer. Secondly, compared to subtitling, the choice of linguistic means in dubbing is shaped by a stronger pressure to fit the co-present visual information. Under these circumstances, a linear imitation of the English source text's phrase and sentence structures in the German target text may override conventionalized German ways of information patterning.

Thirdly, unlike subtitling, dubbing leaves the semiotic structure of the film intact. That is, dubbing does not superimpose an extra layer of information on the finished film, as subtitling does by adding writing to the images. The visual presence of subtitles activates a third mode of reception in the viewer — reading in addition to hearing and seeing. From the introduction of sound onwards, Germany has been one of the so-called "dubbing countries" Luyken , i.

The initial reason for the American film industry to choose dubbing as the method of film translation for the German market was an economic one. In the German film market of the late s, American films had to compete with domestic productions. The fear of the US industry was that the German audience 18 A film consists of three separate parts of raw material: the film track with the photographic images, the voice track — a recording of the spoken discourse — and the so-called international track, containing music, sound effects including background noise.

Among other things, unlike hearing and seeing, reading is a learned competence. Therefore, the more unobtrusive dubbing was chosen for translation. By , dubbing seems to have been firmly established with German audiences, as a contemporary observer describes: Audiences have gotten used to German conversation dubbed to American lip movements. Economic reasons and the political history of the bilateral relation between the USA and Germany from the s onward must be considered as having acted as effective constraints which helped to keep up dubbing and establish it as common practice. In short, the decision in favor of dubbing was made very early in the 'cinematic' relation between the USA and Germany.

The following section gives a summary of the history of film export to Germany and the cultural meanings which have been attached to it. The silent movies of the time rather easily circumvented language barriers. All that was to do by way of adaptation to non-English speaking audiences was to replace the English intertitles by ones in the language of the importing country Vasey From its inception, American film export was accompanied by differing public, economic and political discourses in America and in Germany.

In the USA, American exporters in other branches of business were the first to become aware of the films' power as an instrument of marketing and propaganda. In other words, American films furthered the foreign demand for American consumer goods. In Germany, a different discourse dominated. Political and cultural elites put forth ethical concerns and questioned the societal value of the film medium in general. There was open concern about the adverse psychological, emotional and moral effects of movies on viewers Fehrenbach Immediately after the end of the war, Hollywood film imports returned to Germany, and in the absence of a vital competition from the war-torn German film industry, the American industry seized the opportunity to flood the market with its films cf.

Saunders From that time onward, imports from the USA have always accounted for approximately 80 percent of the movie releases in Germany. Two reactions to the film imports from America can be distinguished in the s and s. Throughout the s, American films were primarily perceived as business competition and a threat to the German film industry. The hostility toward American productions resulted in unsuccessful attempts to protect the domestic market by import quotas. The atmosphere changed in the s when the economic protectionism was joined by the rise of strong nationalism in Germany, bringing in its train public debates about the function of the cinema in the cultural system de Grazia The situation in Germany has to be seen in relation to the concurrent development in the USA.

In the s, the American film business developed into one of the biggest industries of the country. Just as in Germany, the movies had shed their association with low-brow and lower-class entertainment and were able to draw audiences from all levels of American society. But unlike Germany, around , there was what has been called "a general movie-going public" Belton in the USA: An average number of 83 million people went to see a film every week. It is in this context that we have to assess, on the one hand, the role which the American film effectively had by its power to reach an audience of unparalleled size and, on the other hand, the cultural and political role which was ascribed to the American film because of this — at that time — matchless communicative potential.

According to one investigation of the interrelations of American international economic expansion and American cultural diplomacy, economic and political leaders of the time were well aware that films were the USA's most effective way of reaching foreign audiences. Their international importance in shaping popular perceptions greatly surpassed that of radio or press. In very general terms, the OWI censored the films that the Hollywood film industry provided, i. The films were then shipped to Europe — right behind the US armies — to secure and re-establish old European markets as soon as the individual countries were liberated.

The program, designed in , consisted of about thirty films — among them gangster films, adaptations of 22 The same practice was applied for Asian markets. Screening started shortly after Germany's capitulation in the American-occupied zone of Germany. In other words, because the films were products of a democratic society, it was expected they would communicate 'democracy' and thus would instil American-style democratic values in the German audiences. But the films were untranslated and possibly this was one of the reasons why their screenings appeared as too thinly veiled propaganda to attract much public interest in the unsettled social situation of the immediate post-war period.

The program had no success with the German public and was soon abandoned Joseph In the course of the year , the national and cultural redefinition of Germany became the prime issue next to the political and economic restructuring. With the fresh memory of the exploitation of mass media, including the film industry, in Nazi Germany, all of the allied powers recognized the centrality of the film medium in facilitating the democratization process in Germany Fehrenbach The matter was given to private hands.

Up to the present, this organization — also-called the USA's "Little State Department" Guback 90 — administers the international trade relations of the American film industry. After World War II, it negotiated the terms of the resumption and the future of the American film export to Germany, first with the allied administration and after with the German administration of the Federal Republic of Germany.

In order to protect the native German entertainment industry, import regulations for American films were considered, but never thoroughly implemented because the American film industry successfully resisted any impediment to their access to the German market. In , the president of the MPEA argued for a major market share in Germany on ideological grounds: Pictures give an idea of America which it is difficult to portray in any other way, and the reason, the main reason, we think, is because our pictures are not obvious propaganda.

They are completely free pictures and they reflect the freedom under which they are made and the freedom under which they are shown.

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The early decision in favor of dubbing also proved to be the ideal precondition for adapting the film contents — the spoken discourse — according to political aims. Until the s German audiences preferred German films. But from then on the mainstream mass audience favored American films. As will be 23 In many cases, films were also re-edited for distribution in Germany.

Garncarz This is still a standard procedure today. From up to the s, the great majority of the film releases in Germany were American productions, but it were German films which regularly lead the annual top ten lists of the commercially most successful motion pictures. After , the situation reversed. American films outstripped German films in popularity and commercial success.

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Through the s, the most popular German film of the year on average still could claim approximately two thirds of the viewer numbers for the most popular American film of the same year. This ratio changed in the s. From then on the audience numbers for the most popular American film on average always doubled the figure for the audience numbers for the most popular German film. Films of any country which receive the greatest patronage from the public will define the conventions against which all competing films are judged. What has changed in Germany is the nationality of the film industry which set the standards.

Clearly, the German film industry defined film convention until the beginning of the s, after which the American film industry took over. Garncarz , my emphasis The development towards a preference for American films coincides with similar trends in popular music and the concurrently growing social significance of youth culture cf. Zinnecker The early s also suggest a generation change in the consumption of popular culture goods in German society.

Those who were of movie-going age — that is, roughly between 15 and 25 years of age — in the late s had reached midlife in the s and probably had oriented themselves towards different spare time occupations.

Translation of «Haruspizium» into 25 languages

Also, the rapid spread of television induced primarily the elder generation to stay at home for leisure time entertainment. The film patrons of the seventies — again those between the ages of 15 and 25 — had grown up relatively dissociated from the context of the immediate post-war period, in times of relative political and economic stability and affluence and with all modern mass media in operation. Moreover, as generation changes are also processes of identity forming through difference, the younger generation generally actively rejects the habits, conventions and preferences of the elder one.

From this perspective, a change in film preferences appears as a plausible consequence. For the German film industry, the shift in audience preferences had two effects: First, German films could only be commercially successful when they were vehicles for German TV stars for example Otto — Der Film, But more interesting in this context is the second effect: German films tried to compete by copying non-native, American genre traditions — as, for example, in the case of the action film Das Boot, As an explanation Garncarz suggests that between the s and s German and American films basically shared the same stylistic and narrative conventions, and given the choice, the contemporary mainstream audience preferred the domestic product.

The post-war generations of movie goers, however, favored the stylistic, narrative and aesthetic conventions of American films. The most popular films — action films such as Jaws , science fiction films like E. As a consequence, the public preferred American films. In summary, the history of American film in Germany suggests that mass- level audience preferences are in favor of German-dubbed films; they have become the norm on the German film market to the extent that in public discourse, German-dubbed films are perceived as 'films', while original German language films are usually labelled 'German films'.

What seems to be the decisive factor for the popular success of a film with the German audience is its correspondence with the stylistic, aesthetic and narrative preferences and expectation norms of the viewers. For the last three decades these have been determined by the conventions found in American films. To conclude, there is scholarly consensus that American films first "domesticated American culture in Europe" Saunders 1 , and then on two occasions updated in particular German culture: In the s, American movies introduced Germany to 'modernity' and after , licensed by a combination of economic and cultural-political goals agreed on by German and American political authorities, American films reintroduced American consumer culture into German society cf.

Kaes ; Fehrenbach This view seems to be supported by the history of the interrelationship between English-German film translations, the practice of importing American films into Germany and changing audience preferences in film styles. The development towards a distinct audience preference for German-dubbed American films also bears strong resemblance to the mode of target language change through translation processes discussed in Chapter 2. Regarding the history of American films in Germany, we seem to witness an evolution of target- culture aesthetic preferences which appears to mirror Koller's concept of 'norm innovations'.

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The shift in audience preferences could also be described in terms of a change along the dimensions of culture-specific preferences in communicative conventions in visual media, akin to those postulated for texts and spoken discourse by House cf. As Herbst suggests, translators might try to make the translation 'sound English' in order to achieve an 'atmospheric' mapping with the visual information of the film which is, of course, iconic of Anglo-American culture.

Such effects on the language of the film highlight, once again, the significance of the interrelation between the verbal and the visual semiotic components of a film text. Texts which feature this kind of semiotic interrelation are called multimodal texts. At the time, sound was primarily thought to add a technological edge to the medium25, but what was, in fact, also added was one more semiotic dimension. From then on, film has had five ways to communicate meaning to the viewer: the photographic image, graphics onscreen writing , speech, sound effects background noise , and music.

Essentially, these are five different layers of meaning. Their individual combination establishes the meaning of the individual film text. The central decision for the analysis of multimodal texts is whether to take a separate or an integrated approach to the semiotic modes involved.

A separate approach presupposes that the meaning of the whole is the sum of the meaning of its different semiotic parts; conversely, the integrated approach starts from the assumption that the parts interact and affect each other in the formation of the whole. In present context, film texts are understood as integrated texts in the latter sense. I distinguish two main types of semiotic codes along the channels of physical perception: the verbal and the visual.

Somewhat simplified for the present purposes, the sound-image correlation in a film text encompasses verbal reference to visual objects. This correlation is understood to contribute to and to shape the strategies of establishing meaning in a film text. It follows that the prerequisite for the investigation of film texts is an analytical model and a mode of analysis which provides access to the different semiotic codes in interaction in the film text in a principled way.

The model has to facilitate the functional analysis of every single instance of the combination of verbal and visual elements and its contribution to the meaning of the text as a whole. As yet, such a model does not exist. The present thesis thus has two goals: First, to contribute to the question of source text-induced language variation in the target language through the analysis of English-German translations of popular films, and secondly, to develop an analytical tool for this investigation.

The model 25 It must be noted that the film business from its beginnings has relied on two characteristics of the medium to make people come and see a film: First, the power of the film to surprise and thrill the audience by offering uncommon visual perspectives on things, places, events and people, and secondly, the ability to present a 'perfect', self-contained illusion of reality on screen.

Virtually all of the technical innovations in the history of film sound, color, widescreen technology, 3-D, special effects, computer animation have been serving to foster these strengths, in order to keep the audience interested cf. Belton This chapter provided an overview of the cinematic relationship between the USA and Germany in the context of 20th century socio-cultural and political history — including the development of dubbing as a method of film translation and the shift in German mainstream audience preferences towards the aesthetic and narrative styles of American films.

The aim was to show that American films and English- German film translations have become an integral part of German popular culture and that this presence has had tangible effects on recipients' preferences regarding textual styles. This is to indicate that German-dubbed American films do influence the target language recipients so that an adoption of the German-dubbed communicative styles observed onscreen by the audience members — the prerequisite for language variation and change through translation — does not appear unlikely.

Finally, the concept of multimodality was introduced. As the defining characteristic of film texts, it serves as the starting point for the development of the model of analysis of language use in film which will then be applied in the diachronic investigation of English-German film translations. There are a number of studies which investigate film translation. Very few of these deal with film translations on a linguistic basis, even though film translation is all about exchanging linguistic structures.

Moreover, none of them seriously considers the multimodality of the film texts and investigates the interrelation between the different semiotic modes involved, although exchanging linguistic structures is, in effect, always also a reordering of the relation between the visual and verbal layers of meaning in the film text. The next chapter discusses the state-of-the-art in the three areas of research principally relevant for the purposes of this thesis: translation studies, approaches to visual analysis and film studies, and English-German contrastive linguistics and language typology.

I will present both perspectives on film translation in turn. Note that I will only make reference to the literature on film translation by dubbing. Chaume gives an overview of research on subtitling; Gambier addresses other types of "screen translation". Researchers who investigate film translations, however, may or may not explicitly affiliate themselves with this area.

The number of publications on film translation in Europe is not very large, and of course, it is even smaller for particular language pairs and particular translation directions. Also, mutual recognition of research seems to follow rather precisely the language boundaries of the languages involved. Nevertheless, practice, theory and methods of the translation of films have been regularly addressed since the early s cf. These contributions are typically short assessments of the state-of-the-art in film translation. Furthermore, being non-empirical, for the most part pre-theoretical and only relying on anecdotal evidence from translations and their source texts — they regularly also include programmatic pleas for a scientific analysis of translation in film.

The comparatively scant interest in film translation has led to the situation that there is to date hardly a scholarly discourse on film translation which is based on the results of scientific research. It seems almost as if over the past decades every inquiry, whether analytical, theoretical or methodological, as it were, felt it necessary to start all over again — from scratch — without taking much notice or making use of previous work.

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What Pym has described for multimedia translation in general, namely a growing number of "isolated descriptions, incurring the risk of intellectual fragmentation" p. The translation texts are studied from a variety of perspectives, including linguistic, discursive, cinematographic, and cultural ones. The methods employed are typically qualitative content analysis, linguistic analysis and visual analysis, or combinations of these with additional input from media studies or sociology for example Hesse-Quack ; Delabastita , ; Herbst , ; Remael Another distinction can be made between work focusing on theoretical and methodological aspects and actual analyses on the one hand for example Herbst , , and the presentation and interpretation of the results of the analyses in the light of a superordinate question of, for example, language contact, culture contact, language acquisition, modes of language transfer, or translation quality assessment, on the other for example Hesse-Quack The theoretical-methodological suggestions for approaching translation practice in film and the analysis of film translations more often than not appear as rather vague in design.

Accordingly, these studies remain somewhat implicit concerning the actual application in analysis. An exception is Delabastita who explicitly gives an "organized inventory of questions and hypothesis that should direct any future research" p. But in spite of this, neither the theoretical premise for the meaningful integration of the source and target texts' cultural contexts into the analysis as proposed by Delabastita , nor the necessity to make an integrated approach to the combination of semiotic systems in the analysis of film texts as stipulated by Remael are ever actually presented at work in the analysis of dubbed films.

Only very rarely, already existent theoretical and methodological work seems to be taken up in empirical investigations by other scholars for example Lorenzo et al. A number of studies are concerned with film translations from English into German. He starts from the assumption that a culture changes through contact with other cultures. One of the most important interfaces for the contact between cultures are internationally distributed products of the mass media, and especially films, since a great part of the cross-culturally distributed products of the mass-media are translated films.

Following Mead , and Malinowski , Hesse-Quack presumes that the contents of mass media are re- presentations of the culture of their origin — "in ihnen objektiviert sich die Kultur" Hesse-Quack In his view, the process of translation helps to encode the culture-specific meaningful elements — or, 'significant symbols' — of the source text culture as elements which can be recognized by the target language community and which are 'significant' in the target language culture. In the process of translation, he claims, linguistic elements and narrative structures of the source texts which express 'individuality', 'diversity' and 'complexity' are changed to comply with target cultural standards of linguistic choice and narrativity and also with the target culture's stereotypes of the source text culture.

In addition, the expression of social criticism in the source texts tends to be left out in the translation texts while they are at the same time padded up with additional linguistic elements which express emotional involvement and affect. Sozialkritik Neutralisierung Figure 3 Changes in film translation reproduced from Hesse-Quack Mehr sachliche Darstellungen erfahren eine Transposition in Richtung auf Emotionalisierung und Romantisierung.

Fast immer wird Sozialkritik neutralisiert. She comes to the conclusion that the linguistic changes entailed by the process of translation result in radically different characterizations of the protagonists of the series. Toepser-Ziegert interprets these findings as reflections of the expectation norms and desires of the contemporary audience in the German target culture. However, her claim remains largely unsubstantiated because she neither presents concurring evidence from other disciplines elucidating audience preferences prevalent in the s in Germany, nor suggests a theoretically-based connection between the language use in the translations and the social and cultural context of the recipients in the target culture, which might strengthen her argument.

He addresses the economic conditions of film translation, the technical aspects of dubbing, the process of dubbing as well as special cases of translation in film such as songs, writing in film, humor, social and regional varieties and non-verbal communication. The term "gatekeeping" originally stems from social psychology Lewin It describes a particular phenomenon of information filtering with the goal of executing social control.

At each gate, there is one person — a member of the culture, possibly a representative of an institution — who may alter the message by adding or eliminating information. The idea of "gatekeeping" is that messages are transformed by the particular interests and knowledge of the person at the gate. In the process of film translation, the film text likewise can be seen as passing through several gates. Each of the gates is personified by members of the institutions involved in the process of releasing a German-translated film on the German market — for example the translator, the dubbing director, the dubbing actor and the dubbing editor.

My favourites in terms of bridges are the Punt da Suransuns, a footbridge composed of slabs of Andeer gneiss that perfectly fit into the stony section of the Via Spluga long-distance footpath between Switzerland and Italy, and the Zweiter Travesiner Steg, a bridge with inclined stairs that also forms part of the same long-distance footpath. It is no small challenge to photograph bridge after bridge so that the viewer does not feel easily bored. Martin Linsi made good use of his imagination and must have done quite a bit of walking in order to find the different angles from where to take his pictures.

The black and white photographs depict rural and urban scenes, old and new structures and facilities of various sizes. I was especially impressed by the pictures of the Susten Pass road - a sequence of images from close and afar that are put together in a most thoughtful and appealing way that makes you feel like you are not looking at pictures but at "the real thing".

Sunday, 2 September Mojave Chamber of Commerce. One of the places that especially fascinated me was Mojave. What I remember is its airplane cemetery, the Motel 6, main street, a young woman at Burger King who had no idea how to go about her job, a shopping place, the sun setting in the desert and drinking coffee with Emelle. I do however have no recollection at all of the place where the above photo was taken. On the other hand, why should that not suffice for a chamber of commerce?

Whatever, there actually is a Mojave Chamber of Commerce or at least a building that carries its name , the photograph not only proves that, the photograph also proves that I myself was actually there. PS: In a portrait on Arte , Jonathan Franzen said about the unspoiled Mojave desert: Nobody knows what to do with this vast nature and this is the reason why it is unspoiled.

In this truly stunning book, photographer Luca Zanier, born , offers us his view of the interior life of the power industry. We get to see pictures of the inside of nuclear power plants, gasworks, thermal power stations, an oil storage tank, an oil tanker etc. The photos are aesthetically marvellous, the handling of angles and light captivating.

Moreover, the format 27 x 37 cm in which they are presented contributes considerably to the sense of wonder that the viewer will experience when looking at these pics. To me, it felt like being in a science fiction movie. Without the captions in the appendix I would not have known that I was looking at parts of energy producing systems. What came to mind was Matthew B. Crawford's observation in Shop Class as Soulcraft that in our modern world we increasingly get less and less to see of the interior of complex machines. Luca Zanier does show us such interiors. The effect his photographs had on me was however not so much educational but, strangely enough, rather made me feel like being on another planet.

Cathedrals and temples are places of public worship and power plants are not. In addition, I not only hope but assume that these power facilities are manned and not abandoned. In sum: an aesthetically exquisite achievement. Sunday, 19 August London, Portrait of a City. What I first noticed when opening this book was the mention "Captions written by Barry Miles" on the title-page.

I thought this extraordinary and most appropriate for it is often the captions that define our looking at photographs and felt already determined to like this work - and I did and do! The pics in this tome are not only by luminaries such as Eve Arnold, David Bailey, Cecil Beaton, Erwin Bischof, and Bill Brandt but mostly by anonymous photographers whose shots convinced me as much as the ones of their well-known colleagues, and sometimes more. Yet this was just the start The first chapter covers the time from to The Monster City , the second to Modern Times , the third to The Consequences of War , the fourth to The Party and the Morning After , and the fifth to the present, however not including the riots of August Ballard that I so far hadn't come across The Drowned World.

London, Portrait of a City is not only a book with an amazing variety of photographs, it is also an intelligently composed book - just have a look at the double-page spread above the sailors were photographed by Thurston Hopkins, the nude woman by Bill Brandt. In sum: compelling photos abound that invite you to make fascinating discoveries, lots of them! Seit seinem Trotzdem: Michael Martins Grundhaltung ist mir sympathisch. Die Legende dazu lautet: "Kinder mit Taube". Sunday, 5 August The Eyes of War.

In , Martin Roemers attended the D-Day commemoration in Normandy, France; he wanted to make portrait photographs of World War II veterans, one of these portraits was of Frederick Bentley whose story blinded by a German grenade, left behind by his comrades, worked for thirty-three years as a mechanical engineer, inspecting machines by touch: "I had work, I married, and I had four children. I had a good life after the war" stayed with him and subsequently inspired this remarkable book. It is not only the eyes that capture our attention, it is also the faces, faces that ressemble sculptures.

These men and women were photographed outside, sitting on a stool, against a black background. Right, and so you look into faces that are images of a life. Some of them reminded me of death masks. Homes in 'The Mistress's Daughter'. I've always been very fond of this observation for it seemed so accurate. However, when looking into the faces of people who are blind I do sense, sometimes, a certain discomfort, it feels as if it is not right to look into their eyes.

Some of the portrayed have their eyes closed, others do not have eyes anymore. And because of that I seemed to ask myself more often than usual what was going through their minds. The brief texts that accompany the black-and-white photographs of The Eyes of War gave me a good idea of what the stories behind the pictures were.

Sieglinde Bartelsen Germany, Sieglinde Bartelsen was fourteen when she for the last time saw herself in the mirror. In November , she became victim of a British bomb raid. I needed an operation. The road was full of impact craters, which meant that I couldn't lie still. In the hospital, they weren't able to operate on my eye because it had been too badly damaged by the bumpy road. Sunday, 29 July Images from Copenhagen. These pictures were taken in the last week of June Das verdammte Geld machte meinen Mann zum Spion Oktober Dezember September Kehrt um, liebt euch 2.

Wir sind unsterblich 3. Ferdinand von Schirach hat auch einen Text beigesteuert "Paternoster". Als Axel Springer 'Bild' sagte, hatte er Spannung gemeint. Pocken-Alarm in aller Welt Januar Juli Es ist einfach herrlich! Die farbige Mattscheibe verzaubert alle August Ehebruch nicht mehr strafbar Weil ich schreien darf, mich aufregen darf. Sunday, 15 July Steve McCurry. I do not recall a photo-exhibition that has impressed me more.

The Afghan girl with the green eyes, taken in , is very probably McCurry's best known picture. At the Copenhagen exhibition, a video documentary about the search for the girl nobody seemed to know who she is was shown - despite press reports to the contrary, she has not been found. That is what I remember. Later on, however, I've read that McCurry claimed that she had indeed been found. I thought especially the colours extraordinary and was wondering whether these were colours actually found in real life or whether the pics were heavily photoshopped.

He bewitches us with colours in a way only nature and her elements otherwise do. We look at his photographs with a sense of amazement and wonder whether what we are seeing is actually real. But is has to be be. Otherwise these pictures would not exist". In regards to some of the pics in this tome, I'm still not sure The latter must have been the case when he photographed the fishermen on stilts in Sri Lanka, a painting-like shot that to me, in regards to colours, seems almost too good to be true.

The photographs in this tome were taken in Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Peru, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and New York, and they are accompanied by an informative essay by Jochen Siemens who, among other things, quotes McCurry's conviction that "you have to search for every single picture" for the simple reason that "pictures don't just walk past you".

Good point indeed! And much more convincing than this one: "McCurry says that he could imagine all his pictures in black and white". Apart from the fact that I find this difficult to believe on the other hand: what do I know of this man's imagination? In sum: I love these photographs! The photo below shows highschool seniors filming their friends during their weekly Fight Club. Steve McCurry. Newer Posts Older Posts Home. Subscribe to: Posts Atom. Across Cultures. About Me Hans Durrer hansdurrer. Herolds Rache Fehnland Verlag, Warum rennen hier alle so?

Framing the World Alondra Press,