In , she became the first Batgirl to star in an eponymous monthly comic book series, in addition to becoming one of the most prominent characters of Asian descent to appear in American comics. The series was canceled in , at which point during the company-wide storyline " One Year Later ", she is established as a villain and head of the League of Assassins. After receiving harsh feedback from readership, she is later restored to her original conception.
However, the character Stephanie Brown , originally known as Spoiler and later Robin, succeeds her as Batgirl after Cassandra Cain abandons the role. Stephanie Brown became the featured character of the Batgirl series from to DC subsequently relaunched all their monthly publications during The New 52 relaunch. In the revised continuity, Barbara Gordon recovers from her paralysis following a surgical procedure and stars in the relaunched Batgirl series as the titular character. These changes were retained as part of the DC Rebirth event. As Batgirl, Barbara Gordon has been adapted into various media relating to the Batman franchise , including television, film, animation, video games, and other merchandise.
The character's popularity from adaptations factored into the decision to have her return to the comics, and Dan DiDio , co-publisher of DC Comics, expressed that she is the best-known version of the character. Following the accusations of a homoerotic subtext in the depiction of the relationship between Batman and Robin as described in Fredric Wertham 's book Seduction of the Innocent , a female character, Kathy Kane the Batwoman , appeared in as a love-interest for Batman.
DC Comics abandoned these characters in when newly appointed Batman-editor Julius Schwartz judged them too silly and therefore inappropriate. Schwartz stated that he had been asked to develop a new female character in order to attract a female viewership to the Batman television series of the s. She was like a pesky girl version of Robin. I knew we could do a lot better, so Julie and I came up with the real Batgirl, who was so popular she almost got her own TV show. In the debut story, while driving to a costume ball dressed as a female version of Batman, Barbara Gordon intervenes in a kidnapping attempt on Bruce Wayne by the super villain Killer Moth , attracting Batman's attention and leading to a crime-fighting career.
Although Batman insists she give up crime-fighting because of her gender, Batgirl disregards his objections. In her civilian identity, Dr. Barbara Gordon Ph. Frank Robbins wrote nearly all of these backups, which were penciled first by Gil Kane and later by Don Heck. Although some readers requested that Batwoman also continue to appear in publication, DC responded to the fan-based acclaim and criticism of the new character in an open letter in Detective Comics ,  stating: "I'd like to say a few words about the reaction some readers have to Batgirl.
These are readers who remember Batwoman and the other Bat-girls from years back They were there because romance seemed to be needed in Batman's life. But thanks to the big change and a foresighted editor, these hapless females are gone for good. In their place stands a girl who is a capable crime-fighter, a far cry from Batwoman who constantly had to be rescued [by] Batman. Batgirl continued to appear in DC Comics publications throughout the late s and s as a supporting character in Detective Comics , in addition to guest appearances in various titles such as Justice League of America ,  World's Finest Comics ,  The Brave and the Bold ,  Adventure Comics ,  and Superman.
She moves to Washington, D. Batgirl also guest-starred in other Superman related titles such as of Adventure Comics and in Superman Family , where she teams with Supergirl. The character is given a starring role in DC's Batman Family comic book which debuted in Batgirl meets Batwoman in Batman Family 10, when the retired superhero briefly returns to crime-fighting before the Bronze Tiger murders Kane.
The two fight Killer Moth and Cavalier , and learn each other's secret identities. Batwoman retires once again at the conclusion of the story, leaving Batgirl to continue crime-fighting. Crisis on Infinite Earths , a limited miniseries published in , was written in order to reduce the complex history of DC Comics to a single continuity.
Although Batgirl is a featured character, her role is relatively small—she delivers Supergirl's eulogy in issue seven of the part series. Following the reboot , Barbara Gordon is born to Roger and Thelma Gordon, and she is Jim Gordon's niece and adopted daughter in current canon. Post- Crisis , Supergirl does not arrive on Earth until after Gordon has established herself as Oracle, and many of the adventures she shared with Batgirl are retroactively described as having been experienced by Power Girl.
Within the storyline, Gordon recounts the series of events that lead to her career as Batgirl, including her first encounter with Batman as a child, studying martial arts under the tutelage of a sensei , memorizing maps and blue prints of the city, excelling in academics in order to skip grades, and pushing herself to become a star athlete. In this graphic novel, the Joker shoots and paralyzes Barbara Gordon in an attempt to drive her father insane, thereby proving to Batman that anyone can lose their minds after having "one bad day".
In , during an interview with Wizard , Moore expressed regret over his treatment of the character, calling it "shallow and ill-conceived". Although there has been speculation as to whether or not editors at DC specifically intended to have the character's paralysis become permanent, Brian Cronin, author of Was Superman A Spy?
Rather than allow the character to fall into obscurity, the two decided to revive her as a character living with a disability—the information broker, Oracle. Eleven years after the editorial retirement of Barbara Gordon as Batgirl, a new version of the character was introduced in Batman: Shadow of the Bat 83 during the multi-title story arc "No Man's Land" The first Batgirl monthly comic was published in , with Cassandra Cain as the title character.
Raised by assassin David Cain , Cassandra Cain was not taught spoken language, but instead was taught to "read" physical movement. Subsequently, Cain's only form of communication was body language.
This also caused her brain to develop learning functions different from most, a form of dyslexia that hampers her abilities to read and write. Despite Cain's disability, author Andersen Gabrych describes the character's unique form of language as the key factor in what makes Cain an excellent detective; the ability to walk into a room and "know" something is wrong based on body language. When DC Comics continuity skipped forward one year after the events of the limited series Infinite Crisis , Cassandra Cain is revived as leader of the League of Assassins , having abandoned her previous characterization as an altruist.
The character's progression from hero to villain angered some of her fans and was accompanied by heavy criticism. Following the conclusion of the storyline, DC Comics has restored Cain's original characterization as a superhero and the character has been given a supporting role in the comic book series Batman and the Outsiders. Following the events of Batman's disappearance , Cassandra, acting under her mentor's orders in the event of his death, handed over the Batgirl mantle to Stephanie Brown, the former Spoiler and Robin.
Stephanie Brown, formerly the Spoiler and briefly the fourth Robin, takes up the mantle of Batgirl after Cassandra Cain gives Brown her costume under Batman's order. Brown is the fourth in-continuity Batgirl and the second Batgirl to star in her own ongoing Batgirl comic book series.
In September, , following the company-wide relaunch, Barbara Gordon stars in a new Batgirl series—one of The New 52 titles featuring the company's most iconic characters. The conclusion of the limited series Flashpoint establishes a new continuity within the DC Universe, with all characters regressing to an earlier age and stage in their careers, while remaining in a modern timeline.
DC Senior VP of Sales, Bob Wayne, explained that with each of their titles reverting to issue 1, "our creative teams have the ability to take a more modern approach—not only with each character, but with how the characters interact with one another and the universe as a whole, and focus on the earlier part of the careers of each of our iconic characters. Now she will go through physical rehabilitation and become a more seasoned and nuanced character because she had these incredible and diverse experiences. This is classic Barbara as she was originally conceived, with a few big surprises.
Barbara Gordon leaping, fighting, and swinging over Gotham. And that is absolutely thrilling. In the new, revised continuity, the events of The Killing Joke took place three years before the current storyline, and while it is established she was paraplegic during that time, Barbara Gordon is written as having regained her mobility after undergoing experimental surgery at a South African clinic.
One thing the book is truly about, is that the after-effects of something like PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder or other trauma-related syndromes, can strike even very smart, very intellectually tough people, even soldiers and cops", a subject that is generally overlooked in comic books. People have been talking about this as if it's some sort of mystical thing like returning from the dead, but there are treatments and surgeries that can restore mobility in some cases.
Barbara's spine was not severed. That makes her a candidate. Prior to its release, Batgirl 1 sold out at the distribution level with over , copies printed in its first run according to Diamond Comic Distributors. Her formula: murderous villains, blood splattering violence and high flying superheroics mixed with single-white-female bonding This is a must-buy series. Since the series relaunch in September , Batgirl has remained within the top 30 of the best-selling monthly comic book publications sold in North America.
Monthly estimated sales figures are as follows: Batgirl No. She declines Canary's invitation, suggesting that Katana take her place instead. In October , the monthly Batgirl title underwent a soft reboot with the new creative team Brenden Fletcher writer Cameron Stewart writer, layouts , Babs Tarr artist and Maris Wicks colors.
The first six-issue story explored Barbara Gordon's attempt to start a new life as a PhD student in the hip Gotham borough of Burnside. While seemingly light and engaging compared to Gail Simone's darker preceding run, the new arc ultimately dealt with Babs' inability to fully escape her earlier trauma and the villain was revealed as her own brain scans, an algorithm similar to the pre-New 52 Oracle. On March 13, DC Comics released 25 Joker-themed variant covers for its various monthly series for release that June, in celebration of the character's 75th anniversary. The cover depicts the Joker standing next to a tearful Batgirl, who has a red smile painted across her mouth.
The Joker has one hand holding a revolver draped over Batgirl's shoulder and is pointing to her cheek with the other hand, as if gesturing to shoot her. The cover quickly drew criticism for highlighting a dark period in the character's history, especially when juxtaposed with the youthful, more optimistic direction of the series at the time.
The hashtag changethecover drew dozens of posts on Twitter and Tumblr asking DC to not release the variant. DC ultimately withdrew the cover from publication at the request of Albuquerque, who stated, "My intention was never to hurt or upset anyone through my art For that reason, I have recommended to DC that the variant cover be pulled. The relaunch restores elements of the pre- Flashpoint DC continuity while maintaining elements of The New 52 as well.
The comic was praised for its fun, fresh approach to the character and for Batgirl's realistic new costume design. Various alterations of Barbara Gordon as Batgirl have appeared in storylines published in and out of mainstream continuity titles. Variants of the character within continuity often appear in stories which involve time travel, such as the crossover limited series Zero Hour: Crisis in Time , a follow-up story preceded by the limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths which altered mainstream continuity.
The Elseworlds imprint takes the company's iconic characters and places them in alternate timelines, places and events making heroes "as familiar as yesterday seem as fresh as tomorrow". In , DC Comics launched its All Star imprint—an ongoing series of comics designed to pair the company's most iconic characters with the most acclaimed writers and artists in the industry. Similar to Elseworlds , All Star is not restricted to continuity and establishes a fresh perspective for the latest generation of readership. According to Dan DiDio , "[t]hese books are created to literally reach the widest audience possible, and not just the comic book audience, but anyone who has ever wanted to read or see anything about Superman or Batman.
In addition, another variation of the character had been set to star in an eponymous All Star Batgirl title, written by Geoff Johns ; however, the series was canceled prior to publication. In Batman Beyond Unlimited set in the continuity of the animated series Batman Beyond , the new Batgirl is a year-old girl named Nissa.
After she lost her boyfriend during the war, she traveled to Louisiana and did indeed become a vampire. Batgirl has officially been represented by four different characters — and two claimants — beginning with her introduction in During the Golden Age, a female character was introduced as a love interest for Robin. Betty Kane as "Bat-Girl" was depicted as the niece of and Robin-like sidekick to the original Batwoman. In , however, editor Julius Schwartz asserted that Bat-Girl and other characters in the Bat-Family should be removed considering the decline in sales and restored the Batman mythology to its original conception of heroic vigilantism.
As her original characterization was retconned out of existence during the Crisis on Infinite Earths storyline, a discrepancy arose where her Bat-Girl character had joined the west coast version of the Teen Titans but simply disappeared. The character was reintroduced as Bette Kane and the alias of Flamebird. Following Infinite Crisis , the character's past as Bat-Girl was hinted at as being a part of continuity. However, that reference included a revamped origin of the character and it may or may not have been the current Bette Kane.
During the run of the Batman television series, DC editorial was approached about adding a female character back into the Batman family. Revising the character history and motivation, Julius Schwartz created Barbara Gordon. This character held the role of Batgirl from to when she was retired by DC editorial decision. The character's role was changed to a paraplegic source of information for all members of the Batman family and codenamed "Oracle".
She was later restored as Batgirl during The New 52 relaunch of the entire DC publication line in Written as the daughter of assassins David Cain and Lady Shiva, she is trained from early childhood to read human body language instead of developing verbal and written communication skills as part of her father's conditioning to mold her into the world's deadliest assassin. However, after committing her first murder, she vows to never again use her martial-arts prowess to kill.
In , she became the first Batgirl to star in an eponymous monthly comic book series as well as one of the most prominent characters of Asian descent to appear in American comics. The series was canceled in and Cassandra Cain abandoned the role of Batgirl shortly thereafter. Years later, Cassandra rejoined the Batman family under the moniker Blackbat. Stephanie Brown was formerly known as Spoiler and then as the first in-continuity female Robin until her apparent death in Following her return to comics in , she assumed the role of Batgirl.
She maintained this position until , the relaunch of the DC imprint under The New After violating Batman's code against extreme violence, she was stripped of the mantle and returned to her alias of Huntress. After Cassandra Cain abandoned the role a mystery character appeared as the new Batgirl in the Birds of Prey comic. Possessing superpowers, the teen claimed the empty mantle in an attempt to honor the character. However, Barbara Gordon quickly dissuaded the teen from continuing in the role. Charlie Gage-Radcliffe acquiesced, but modified her costume and changed her name to Misfit.
While Barbara Gordon and Cassandra Cain have both been the subject of academic analysis regarding the portrayal of women in comics , commentary on Barbara Gordon's Batgirl has focused on her character's connection to the women's liberation movement , doctoral degree and career as a librarian, while analysis of Cassandra Cain's Batgirl has focused on the character's double minority status as a woman and a person of color.
Since her debut in DC Comics publication, and fueled by her adaptation into the Batman television series in , Barbara Gordon's Batgirl has been listed among fictional characters that are regarded as cultural icons. Unlike Batwoman who preceded her, "she wears his symbol on her chest, but she is not his girlfriend or faithful handmaiden. During the s, Barbara Kesel , after writing a complaint to DC Comics over the negative portrayal of female characters, was given the opportunity to write for Barbara Gordon in Detective Comics.
Robin Anne Reid, in Women in Science Fiction and Fantasy: Overviews wrote that "Kesel's version of Batgirl established her as a character separate from Batman and Robin: a woman motivated to do what men do, but alone and in her own way. Gail Simone included the character's paralysis in a list of "major female characters that had been killed, mutilated, and depowered", dubbing the phenomenon " Women in Refrigerators " in reference to a Green Lantern story where the title character discovers his girlfriend's mutilated body in his refrigerator.
Less than a year later, Batman was fine. Batgirl—now named Oracle—was in a wheelchair and remained so for many years. In Superheroes and Superegos: Analyzing the Minds Behind the Masks , author Sharon Packer wrote that "[a]nyone who feels that feminist critics overreacted to [Gordon's] accident is advised to consult the source material", calling the work "sadistic to the core". Brian Cronin noted that "[many] readers felt the violence towards Barbara Gordon was too much, and even Moore, in retrospect, has expressed his displeasure with how the story turned out.
Brown, author of Dangerous Curves: Action Heroines, Gender, Fetishism, and Popular Culture noted The Killing Joke as an example of the "inherent misogyny of the male-dominated comic book industry" in light of the "relatively unequal violence [female characters] are subjected to. Despite views that present the character's Batgirl persona as a symbol of female empowerment, a long-held criticism is that she was originally conceived as an uninspired variation of Batman "rather than standing alone as leader, such as Wonder Woman " who had no pre-existing male counterpart.
Benefiel argue that Batgirl's portrayal as a librarian is considered to be significant to the profession, in that it is represented as a valuable and honorable career. Even in light of the fact that the character abandons it in order to run for United States Congress, Barbara Gordon is seen as being given a "career switch that even most librarians would consider a step up. The Cassandra Cain version of Batgirl, depicted as a biracial character Half White and half Chinese , is notable as one of the most prominent characters of Asian descent to appear in American comic books.
Jeffrey A. Brown states that while her ethnicity is rarely mentioned in the comic books, Asian women have had a long history in comics of being portrayed as martial artists and are often exploited as sex objects. However, in the case of Batgirl, "Cassandra's racial identity is treated more implicitly than explicitly. Her costume design actually conceals her entire body so that while in her guise as Batgirl her ethnicity is completely unapparent. The abrupt shift in her character brought about negative criticism from readership.
That was left for me to come up with and them to approve. And we did that. But as far as to why the editors and writers and whoever else made the decision decided that was a good direction, I honestly couldn't answer. Portrayed by Yvonne Craig , the character's first adaptation outside of comic books took place in the third season of Batman , Barbara Gordon having been discussed months earlier by her father and Batman in the second-season episodes, "Batman's Waterloo" and "The Duo Defy".
Les Daniels, in Batman: The Complete History wrote that the goal of ABC was to "attract new audience members, especially idealistic young girls and less high-minded older men. I realized they hired me because I had a cartoon voice. They say it's because it was the first time they ever felt girls could do the same things guys could do, and sometimes better. I think that's lovely. Since Batman , the character has had a long history of appearances in television and other media.
Barbara Gordon makes two cameo appearances in the first season of the animated series Young Justice , and is added as a recurring character in season two where she has adopted her Batgirl persona. Although this series focused on her role as Oracle, the series included flash-backs of the character's history as Batgirl. Towards the end of the film, she dons her cowl and teams up with Batman as Batgirl in addition to her role as Commissioner. In addition to live-action television and animation, the character has appeared in a number of video games included in the Batman franchise.
The developers created a side story named "A Matter of Family" in which the player is able to control Batgirl. At the other are those critics, like Cassell, who deny Ulysses any special importance, telling us that the poet feels nothing but scorn for his creature and that to see anything else at work in the canto is to read it through anachronistic romantic eyes. Both these readings rob the episode of its tension and deflate it of its energy: on the one hand, by making the fact that Ulysses is in Hell irrelevant and, on the other, by denying that this particular sinner means more to the poem than do his companions.
The encounter with Ulysses belongs to the eighth bolgia , but Dante does not tell us that the eighth bolgia houses fraudulent counselors until the end of Inferno A deliberate ambiguity is thus structured into the presentation of Ulysses. He gets the maximum out of every word he writes, because every word is susceptible to multiple meanings, not in the banal sense of allegory but in the living sense of language that goes in multiple directions, all psychologically true and real to life. The fall of Troy occurred, after ten long years of war, not because of military superiority but because of the stratagem—the Ulyssean stratagem—of the Trojan horse.
Ulysses is guilty also of the trick by which Achilles was lured to war and the theft of the Palladium:. Rightly or wrongly, his oration has moved generations of readers and quite divorced of its infernal context has achieved proverbial status in Italy. Ulysses exhorts his companions to follow him to the unknown, framing such a voyage as a pursuit of knowledge:. In its infernal context, this oration exemplifies fraudulent counsel, since through it Ulysses leads his companions to their destruction.
But it also powerfully evokes the authentic spirit of the Ciceronian discendi cupiditas. If anything, the opposite is true. Dante is a little too un-blinded, a little too susceptible to the discendi cupiditas. Aristotle begins the first book of the Metaphysics thus:. All men by nature desire to know. An indication of this is the delight we take in our senses; for even apart from their usefulness they are loved for themselves; and above all others the sense of sight.
For not only with a view to action, but even when we are not going to do anything, we prefer seeing one might say to everything else. The reason is that this, most of all the senses, makes us know and brings to light many differences between things. Although Virgilio gives a concise account of all the deceits and tricks for which Ulysses was famous, Dante focuses Inferno 26 on the heroic quest.
He incites his men to a folle volo to uninhabited lands beyond the known world. Indeed, the sighting of Mount Purgatory makes inescapable the connection between Dante and Ulysses, a connection that in any case the narrator of Inferno 26 has underscored throughout the episode. Dante tells us explicitly from the outset that the materia of this canto grieves and concerns him in a particular way:. In this bolgia as in some others, the souls are not visible in human form: they are tongues of flame that flicker on the floor of the bolgia like fireflies in the summer twilight Inf.
There is no doubt that Dante is communicating his love and fascination for the Greek hero. He will pick up this idea in a fascinating way at the beginning of Inferno For now, let us note that Dante here scripts for Virgilio language that—while written in Italian— sounds as much like Latin epic as it is possible for the vernacular to sound.
Ulysses himself will maintain this lofty diction His language is solemn, sublime, noble—modulating from the unfettered excitement of his ardor to know and the charismatic humanism with which he summons his men to his dignified and lapidary final submission to the higher power that sends him to a watery grave.
The waters close over him, but he remains heroic: one of the few figures in the Inferno to utter no complaint. As we have seen in the Introduction above, Dante gives to his Ulysses an Adamic function. This is Nembrot, the Biblical builder of the Tower of Babel. But it is worth noting that Dante, a Christian author, leads his readers on a very counter-intuitive course to the understanding that we eventually attain.
It would have been far simpler, in other words, to have presented Adam himself—rather than Ulysses—as the signifier of Adamic trespass. Of course, at a fundamental level this happens because Dante has us read Inferno before Purgatorio and Paradiso , thus presenting much material in its negative variant, through a negative representative, and so forth. The effect of this in malo reading experience must inevitably be to complicate matters, since we get hold of things from the wrong end first and have to scramble about a bit and disentangle a good deal to get things back to right.
For instance, we have to wrestle with feeling compassion in Hell and learning why it is wrong rather than avoiding such an arduous lesson until we are well versed in the requisite theology. After all, Nembrot alone would have been able to fulfill that function more straightforwardly, confronting one Biblical character with another.
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What is remarkable is the choice of a classical figure for the personification of Adamic trespass, a choice that creates a yet more steep learning curve for the reader. The choice of Greek Ulysses is one for which we are prepared by the presence of other classical trespassers in Inferno , particularly by Capaneus, one of the Seven Against Thebes. At the same time, Capaneus is a figure for whom the author elicits no sympathy, whom he keeps at arms-length and to whom Virgilio speaks with disdain.
From the beginning of the Inferno , therefore, we are schooled in a different rhetoric, and in a different mythography—we are taken on a very personal course toward understanding. The very idea that Adamic trespass will be introduced through the figure of Ulysses is a varco folle. Barolini, Teodolinda. About the Commento. Be joyous, Florence, you are great indeed, for over sea and land you beat your wings; through every part of Hell your name extends!
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Among the thieves I found five citizens of yours—and such, that shame has taken me; with them, you can ascend to no high honor. But if the dreams dreamt close to dawn are true, then little time will pass before you feel what Prato and the others crave for you. Were that already come, it would not be too soon—and let it come, since it must be!
The Speed of Darkness by Matt Butts
As I grow older, it will be more heavy. We left that deep and, by protruding stones that served as stairs for our descent before, my guide climbed up again and drew me forward;. It grieved me then and now grieves me again when I direct my mind to what I saw; and more than usual, I curb my talent,. As many as the fireflies the peasant while resting on a hillside in the season when he who lights the world least hides his face ,.
I stood upon the bridge and leaned straight out to see; and if I had not gripped a rock, I should have fallen off—without a push. Who is within the flame that comes so twinned above that it would seem to rise out of the pyre Eteocles shared with his brother? There they regret the guile that makes the dead Deidamia still lament Achilles; and there, for the Palladium, they pay. I only ask you this: refrain from talking. Let me address them—I have understood what you desire of them. And when my guide adjudged the flame had reached a point where time and place were opportune, this was the form I heard his words assume:.
The greater horn within that ancient flame began to sway and tremble, murmuring just like a fire that struggles in the wind;. Therefore, I set out on the open sea with but one ship and that small company of those who never had deserted me. I saw as far as Spain, far as Morocco, along both shores; I saw Sardinia and saw the other islands that sea bathes. And I and my companions were already old and slow, when we approached the narrows where Hercules set up his boundary stones. Consider well the seed that gave you birth: you were not made to live your lives as brutes, but to be followers of worth and knowledge.
I spurred my comrades with this brief address to meet the journey with such eagerness that I could hardly, then, have held them back;. At night I now could see the other pole and all its stars; the star of ours had fallen and never rose above the plain of the ocean. Five times the light beneath the moon had been rekindled, and, as many times, was spent, since that hard passage faced our first attempt,.
The Speed of Darkness (University of the Damned, #1)
And we were glad, but this soon turned to sorrow, for out of that new land a whirlwind rose and hammered at our ship, against her bow. Three times it turned her round with all the waters; and at the fourth, it lifted up the stern so that our prow plunged deep, as pleased an Other,. Among the thieves five citizens of thine Like these I found, whence shame comes unto me, And thou thereby to no great honour risest.
But if when morn is near our dreams are true, Feel shalt thou in a little time from now What Prato, if none other, craves for thee. We went our way, and up along the stairs The bourns had made us to descend before, Remounted my Conductor and drew me. And following the solitary path Among the rocks and ridges of the crag, The foot without the hand sped not at all. That it may run not unless virtue guide it; So that if some good star, or better thing, Have given me good, I may myself not grudge it. As many as the hind who on the hill Rests at the time when he who lights the world His countenance keeps least concealed from us,.