In analog color TV , color is represented by the phase of the chroma subcarrier relative to a reference oscillator. Chroma key is achieved by comparing the phase of the video to the phase corresponding to the pre-selected color. In-phase portions of the video are replaced by the alternate background video.
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In digital color TV , color is represented by three numbers red, green, blue intensity levels. Chroma key is achieved by a simple numerical comparison between the video and the pre-selected color. If the color at a particular point on the screen matches either exactly, or in a range , then the video at that point is replaced by the alternate background. In order to create an illusion that characters and objects filmed are present in the intended background scene, the lighting in the two scenes must be a reasonable match.
For outdoor scenes, overcast days create a diffuse, evenly colored light which can be easier to match in the studio, whereas direct sunlight needs to be matched in both direction and overall color based on time of day. A studio shot taken in front of a green screen will naturally have ambient light the same color as the screen, due to its light scattering.
This effect is known as spill. The depth of field used to record the scene in front of the colored screen should match that of the background. This can mean recording the actors with a larger depth of field than normal. A chroma key subject must avoid wearing clothes which are similar in color to the chroma key color s unless intentional e. An example of intentional use of this is when an actor wears a blue covering over a part of his body to make it invisible in the final shot. This technique can be used to achieve an effect similar to that used in the Harry Potter films to create the effect of an invisibility cloak.
The actor can also be filmed against a chroma-key background and inserted into the background shot with a distortion effect, in order to create a cloak that is marginally detectable. Difficulties emerge with blue screen when a costume in an effects shot must be blue, such as Superman 's traditional blue outfit. In the film Spider-Man , in scenes where both Spider-Man and the Green Goblin are in the air, Spider-Man had to be shot in front of the green screen and the Green Goblin had to be shot in front of a blue screen. The color difference is because Spider-Man wears a costume which is red and blue in color and the Green Goblin wears a costume which is entirely green in color.
If both were shot in front of the same screen, parts of one character would be erased from the shot. For a clean division of foreground from background, it is also important that clothing and hair in the foreground shot have a fairly simple silhouette, as fine details such as frizzy hair may not resolve properly. Similarly, partially transparent elements of the costume cause problems. Blue was originally used for TV chroma keying special effects because [ citation needed ] human skin tone contains very little blue, and because the film industry used blue backgrounds for similar purposes.
The color blue was tied to the blue emulsion layer of film having comparable grain and detail in comparison to the red and green layers of the emulsion. In television and digital filmmaking, however, green has become the favored color because of some practical considerations, and because lossy compression algorithms used in both analog and digital TV distribution retain more detail in the green channel.
The choice of color is up to the effects artists and the needs of the specific shot. Whereas the blue screen was introduced to the television industry by the film industry, the use of green screen visual effects has been introduced to the film industry as electronic imaging has augmented and replaced the use of chemical film stock in cinema. Also, the green background is favored over blue for outdoor filming where the blue sky might appear in the frame and could accidentally be replaced in the process.
Although green and blue are the most common in part because red, green and blue components are used to encode the visible light spectrum, any key color can be used. Red is avoided for human subjects due to its prevalence in white skin tones, but can be often used for objects and scenes which do not involve people. A so-called " yellow screen " is accomplished with a white backdrop. Ordinary stage lighting is used in combination with a bright yellow sodium lamp. The sodium light falls almost entirely in a narrow frequency band, which can then be separated from the other light using a prism, and projected onto a separate but synchronized film carrier within the camera.
This second film is high-contrast black and white, and is processed to produce the matte. Occasionally, a magenta background is used, as in some software applications where the magenta or fuchsia is sometimes referred to as "magic pink". A newer technique is to use a retroreflective curtain in the background, along with a ring of bright LEDs around the camera lens. This requires no light to shine on the background other than the LEDs, which use an extremely small amount of power and space unlike big stage lights , and require no rigging.
This advance was made possible by the invention in the s of practical blue LEDs, which also allow for emerald green LEDs. There is also a form of color keying that uses light spectrum invisible to human eye. Called Thermo-Key, it uses infrared as the key color, which would not be replaced by background image during postprocessing. This involved a fluorescent orange backdrop which made it easier to generate a holdout matte , thus allowing the effects team to produce effects in a quarter of the time needed for other methods. In principle, any type of still background can be used as a chroma key instead of a solid color.
First the background is captured without actors or other foreground elements; then the scene is recorded. The image of the background is used to cancel the background in the actual footage; for example in a digital image, each pixel will have a different chroma key. This is sometimes referred to as a difference matte. The biggest challenge when setting up a bluescreen or greenscreen is even lighting and the avoidance of shadow , because it is best to have as narrow a color range as possible being replaced. A shadow would present itself as a darker color to the camera and might not register for replacement.
This can sometimes be seen in low-budget or live broadcasts where the errors cannot be manually repaired. The material being used affects the quality and ease of having it evenly lit. Materials which are shiny will be far less successful than those that are not. A shiny surface will have areas that reflect the lights making them appear pale, while other areas may be darkened. A matte surface will diffuse the reflected light and have a more even color range.
In order to get the cleanest key from shooting greenscreen it is necessary to create a value difference between the subject and the greenscreen. In order to differentiate the subject from the screen, a two-stop difference can be used, either by making the greenscreen two stops higher than the subject, or vice versa.
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Sometimes a shadow can be used to create a visual effect. Areas of the bluescreen or greenscreen with a shadow on them can be replaced with a darker version of the desired background video image, making it look like the person is casting a shadow on them. Any spill of the chroma key color will make the result look unnatural.
A difference in the focal length of the lenses used can affect the success of chroma key. Another challenge for bluescreen or greenscreen is proper camera exposure. Underexposing or overexposing a colored backdrop can lead to poor saturation levels. Consider war, the atrocities which occur daily and leave us unmoved and hardly worried.
How this new Aeon of Horus will develop, how the Child will grow up, these are for us to determine, growing up ourselves in the way of the Law of Thelema under the enlightened guidance of the Master Therion. Ferocious Fascism, cackling Communism, equally frauds, cavort crazily all over the globe. Evolution makes its changes by anti-Socialistic ways. Above us today hangs a danger never yet paralleled in history.
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We suppress the individual in more and more ways. We think in terms of the herd. War no longer kills soldiers; it kills all indiscriminately. Every new measure of the most democratic and autocratic govenments is Communistic in essence. It is always restriction. We are all treated as imbecile children.
Fascism is like Communism, and dishonest into the bargain. The dictators suppress all art, literature, theatre, music, news, that does not meet their requirements; yet the world only moves by the light of genius. The herd will be destroyed in mass. The establishment of the Law of Thelema is the only way to preserve individual liberty and to assure the future of the race.
All men and women are invited to cooperate with the Master Therion in this, the Great Work. Help me, o warrior lord of Thebes, in my unveiling before the Children of men! I am above you and in you. My ecstasy is in yours. My joy is to see your joy. They shall gather my children into their fold: they shall bring the glory of the stars into the hearts of men.
For he is ever a sun, and she a moon.
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But to him is the winged secret flame, and to her the stooping starlight. They are as upon the earth; I am Heaven, and there is no other God than me, and my lord Hadit. Now, therefore, I am known to ye by my name Nuit, and to him by a secret name which I will give him when at last he knoweth me. Bind nothing! Then saith the prophet and slave of the beauteous one: Who am I, and what shall be the sign? And the sign shall be my ecstasy, the consciousness of the continuity of existence, the omnipresence of my body. This is the creation of the world, that the pain of division is as nothing, and the joy of dissolution all.
For these fools of men and their woes care not thou at all! They feel little; what is, is balanced by weak joys; but ye are my chosen ones. Obey my prophet! Then the joys of my love will redeem ye from all pain. This is so: I swear it by the vault of my body; by my sacred heart and tongue; by all I can give, by all I desire of ye all. But she said: the ordeals I write not: the rituals shall be half known and half concealed: the Law is for all.
My scribe Ankh-af-na-khonsu, the priest of the princes, shall not in one letter change this book; but lest there be folly, he shall comment thereupon by the wisdom of Ra-Hoor-Khu-it. Also the mantras and spells; the obeah and the wanga; the work of the wand and the work of the sword; these he shall learn and teach. Who calls us Thelemites will do no wrong, if he look but close into the word. Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the Law. The word of Sin is Restriction. O man! O lover, if thou wilt, depart! There is no bond that can unite the divided but love: all else is a curse.
Let it be that state of manyhood bound and loathing. So with thy all; thou hast no right but to do thy will. For pure will, unassuaged of purpose, delivered from the lust of result, is every way perfect. Nothing is a secret key of this law. My prophet is a fool with his one, one, one; are not they the Ox, and none by the Book?
Abrogate are all rituals, all ordeals, all words and signs. But they are not of me. Let Asar be the adorant, Isa the sufferer; Hoor in his secret name and splendour is the Lord initiating. There is a word to say about the Hierophantic task. The gross must pass through fire; let the fine be tried in intellect, and the lofty chosen ones in the highest. Let him enter in turn or at once the four gates; let him stand on the floor of the palace. Will he not sink? But there are means and means. Be goodly therefore: dress ye all in fine apparel; eat rich foods and drink sweet wines and wines that foam!
Also, take your fill and will of love as ye will, when, where and with whom ye will! But always unto me. If this be not aright; if ye confound the space-marks, saying: They are one; or saying, They are many; if the ritual be not ever unto me: then expect the direful judgments of Ra Hoor Khuit! Also, o scribe and prophet, though thou be of the princes, it shall not assuage thee nor absolve thee. But ecstasy be thine and joy of earth: ever To me!
To me! Change not as much as the style of a letter; for behold! Expect him not from the East, nor from the West; for from no expected house cometh that child. All words are sacred and all prophets true; save only that they understand a little; solve the first half of the equation, leave the second unattacked. But thou hast all in the clear light, and some, though not all, in the dark.
Invoke me under my stars! Love is the law, love under will. Nor let the fools mistake love; for there are love and love. There is the dove, and there is the serpent. Choose ye well! He, my prophet, hath chosen, knowing the law of the fortress, and the great mystery of the House of God.
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This also is secret: my prophet shall reveal it to the wise. I give unimaginable joys on earth: certainty, not faith, while in life, upon death; peace unutterable, rest, ecstasy; nor do I demand aught in sacrifice. My number is 11, as all their numbers who are of us. Also I have a secret glory for them that love me. But to love me is better than all things: if under the night-stars in the desert thou presently burnest mine incense before me, invoking me with a pure heart, and the Serpent flame therein, thou shalt come a little to lie in my bosom.
For one kiss wilt thou then be willing to give all; but whoso gives one particle of dust shall lose all in that hour. I charge you earnestly to come before me in a single robe, and covered with a rich headdress. I love you! I yearn to you! Pale or purple, veiled or voluptuous, I who am all pleasure and purple, and drunkenness of the innermost sense, desire you. Put on the wings, and arouse the coiled splendour within you: come unto me! At all my meetings with you shall the priestess say— and her eyes shall burn with desire as she stands bare and rejoicing in my secret temple— To me!
Sing the rapturous love-song unto me! Burn to me perfumes! Wear to me jewels! Drink to me, for I love you! I am the blue-lidded daughter of Sunset; I am the naked brilliance of the voluptuous night-sky. I, Hadit, am the complement of Nu, my bride. I am not extended, and Khabs is the name of my House. In the sphere I am everywhere the centre, as she, the circumference, is nowhere found. Let the evil ones be cast away; let the good ones be purged by the prophet!
Then shall this Knowledge go aright. I am the flame that burns in every heart of man, and in the core of every star. I am Life, and the giver of Life, yet therefore is the knowledge of me the knowledge of death. I am the Magician and the Exorcist. I am the axle of the wheel, and the cube in the circle. Who worshipped Heru-pa-kraath have worshipped me; ill, for I am the worshipper. Now let there be a veiling of this shrine: now let the light devour men and eat them up with blindness! For I am perfect, being Not; and my number is nine by the fools; but with the just I am eight, and one in eight: Which is vital, for I am none indeed.
The Empress and the King are not of me; for there is a further secret. Hear me, ye people of sighing! In the pocket of my coat, I held a vial of antibiotics, carried on good advice from a friend. I had no choice. The second baby was sick. I had medicine impossible to obtain here. I accepted the tiny green baby, gasping and oozing, into my arms. I noticed she also had a bald spot, from lying unmoved in her crib.
Shame over my earlier indecision blew from the room like the fetid draft of disease and poverty. Was it love at first sight? I knew in that instant that we were at the start of our life together. Love overtakes you at odd moments. I was trying to collect a urine sample, required for a medical test. I held her, her little purple fanny over a rice bowl, in my arms all night. I drew the blankets around us both as a tent to keep away the cold. We waited, silently, all night, until she took a literal "tinkle.
Within 24 hours, the medicine had taken effect: she turned ivory pink; her eyes cleared. She was beyond my dreams, exquisite, a luminous old soul with contemporary wit. I gazed at her and saw the fatefulness of every mother's choice. It is not the beautiful baby who is chosen, but the chosen baby who becomes beautiful. To enter a house filled with unwanted babies is to pass through a door that you can never shut. I try to close my eyes to them, but they refuse to disappear. They are lying there. They are cold; they are damp. I see one baby girl especially.
She had an odd genetic defect: the skin of her body was coal black, but her face had no color. She looked as if she were wearing the white theatrical mask of tragedy.
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Last Christmas, I was able to choose the green, sick baby over the laughing, healthy one. Would I have had the courage to take one of the others? Would someone? I wake up and see the small faces. They are lying there waiting, waiting to be chosen. Please upgrade your browser. See next articles.
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